Hagerman, Amy D.; Marshall, Tori
Animal disease preparedness involves an array of activities to enhance the ability to prevent or mitigate the effects of high consequence diseases. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza and virulent Newcastle disease in the last decade tested animal disease preparedness investments in the West and highlighted areas where planning and research are still needed. This paper reflects on those eradication efforts and lessons learned from 2009-2019, as well as future challenges and opportunities pertaining to animal health in Western states, specifically resource limitations, public perceptions, and business continuity plans.
Park, John L.; Friend, Diane; McKee, Greg; Manley, Matthew T.
The training of a board of directors for a cooperative business often focuses on the fiduciary duties and skills needed by the cooperative. However, this focus fails to recognize that high performing boards, which are comprised of individuals dedicated to self-improvement, strengthen the cooperative structure. This article presents a framework for cooperative governance, which is characterized by three levels: self, board, and cooperative. The authors suggest a more robust and holistic approach to director training.
The formation of livestock marketing cooperatives occurred in response to market failures. This article features the benefits these cooperatives have generated in their recent operations. Pork, beef, and lamb cooperatives are described. Open and closed membership cooperatives are considered. The structure and services of livestock marketing cooperatives demonstrate the flexibility of cooperatives as a mechanism to respond to changes in the livestock market, including food safety and trade concerns.
Boland, Michael A.
Cooperatives are often thought to require open membership policies, use patronage-based financing, and employ decision-making based on unanimity. The objective is to measure whether large, as measured by dollar volume of assets and sales, cooperatives in the United States utilize practices which are embedded in cooperative principles. Consolidation in production agriculture is occurring in many countries in Western Europe and North America. Agricultural cooperatives, owned by farmers, are increasing in size globally. Governance systems are beginning to evolve as cooperatives get larger in size and compete across a larger geography. Some new cooperative structures are discussed in this article.
Huber, Christopher; Sexton, Natalie
Each fall, thousands of Rocky Mountain Sandhill Cranes and other migratory birds congregate at the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New MexicoÕs Rio Grande Valley in search of wintering habitat. As such, this refuge is known as one of the premier destinations for bird viewing and photography in the United States. Using contingent valuation data, this case study quantifies the value associated with migratory bird recreation at this refuge to be $7.5 million in 2010. It is estimated that this annual value increased by more than $6.4 million in 2017 due to growth in annual refuge visitation.
Rashford, Benjamin S.; Scott, Abby Mellinger; Smutko, L. Steven; Nagler, Amy
Conservation easements are a common tool for protecting important habitat and migration corridors from development across increasingly fragmented western rangelands. Spatially-explicit land market transaction data to evaluate and target easements, however, is sparse or non-existent in many western states. We demonstrate a propensity score matching (PSM) model using available assessment data to estimate unobservable future residential values and probability of habitat loss associated with agricultural parcels. Combined with available parcel-level biological benefits data, the PSM modelÕs estimates of residential value and probability of loss can be used to target conservation easements cost-effectively.
Torell, Gregory L.; Lee, Katherine D.; Steele, Caitriana
Windh, Jessica L.; Ritten, John P.; Derner, Justin D.; Paisley, Steven I.; Lee, Brian P.
Ashwell, Nicolas Quintana; Maher, Anna T.; Tanaka, John A.; Ritten, John P.; Maczko, Kristie A.; Dyer, Holly; Kirkpatrick, Holly; Roberts, Kendall; Hilken, Thomas
Rangeland management practitioners typically agree that prescribed grazing practices have a positive impact on rangeland health with positive implications for ranching productivity. The economic impact of implementing these practices, however, is insufficiently explored. This article assesses the impact of two variants of NRCS-promoted prescribed grazing programs on the profitability of four ranch types in Northern Montana. Preliminary results suggest that outcomes are highly dependent on initial ranch conditions and the level and type of financial incentives. Ranches with large tracts of deeded land and insufficient water developments stand to gain the most from adopting prescribed grazing practices.
Lewin, Paul A.; Wulfhorst, J.D.; Rimbey, Neil R.; Jensen, K. Scott
Peck, Dannele; Derner, Justin; Parton, William; Hartman, Melannie; Fuchs, Brian
Highly variable precipitation in western U.S. rangelands makes it challenging for ranchers to match animal demand to forage supply. Flexible stocking can enhance matching, thereby reducing losses during drought and increasing profit during wet years. Yet the benefits of flexible stocking depend on the availability of highly accurate and applicable seasonal climate outlooks. The availability and skill of seasonal climate outlooks is summarized, revealing shortcomings that make flexible stocking less practical and less beneficial. A new grassland productivity forecast, Grass-Cast, can facilitate flexible stocking by translating climate outlooks into more applicable summer forage outlooks, and its strengths and limitations are described.
Peel, Derrel S.; Riley, John Michael
The cattle industry consists of a complex set of production and marketing activities across unrelated market participants widely dispersed in time, place and form (Peel, 2015). The industry relies on market prices and signals to coordinate these diverse activities. Feeder cattle markets collectively represent the principal point of market contact between all production sectors of the industry (Peel, 2011). Feeder cattle markets provide the market venue for the sale of calves from the cow-calf sector; the source of feeder cattle purchased by feedlots for finishing; and, in between, stocker and back grounding activities that arbitrage feeder cattle across weights, space and time to provide an efficient set of market prices (Peel, 2011).
Tompson, Nathanael M.
Commercial genetic testing services targeted at the beef industry have become quite common in recent years, with many in the beef industry promoting the benefits they provide. However, economic considerations of financial feasibility are limited. What little work that has been done has focused on the use of genetic information to improve feedlot management decisions for commercial cattle. Generally, this work was unable to substantiate positive economic returns. Despite the lack of current economic rationale, the potential for this technology remains strong. In this article, we provide a brief overview of the work that has been done with respect to economics of genetic testing in the beef industry as well as a discussion of future opportunities and challenges. Mainly, this revolves around what is needed to achieve a scenario of cost-effective genetic testing Ð either increasing the value of genetic information or decreasing the cost of the test. While animal scientists are working to provide more accurate tests that have the potential to increase the value of genetic information, producers seeking to use this technology have no control over the rate at which these new variations are released. Therefore, at present, increasing the value of genetic information will require additional vertical coordination or cooperation among different sectors of the beef industry as well as more efficient price signaling. On the other hand, reducing the cost of the test could also help in achieving cost-effective implementation of genetic testing. Two specific scenarios are discussed: (i) offering reduced profiles of genetic information relevant to a specific decision at a reduced cost and (ii) randomly sampling a subset of a group of cattle for genetic testing to measure the genetic potential of the group.