O’Brien, Daniel; DePhelps, Colette; Hardesty, Shermain; Sullins, Martha
Boyer, Christopher N.; Yu, T. Edward; Rhinehart, Justin; Ahles, Amelia; Gill, Mackenzie
The impacts of the Tennessee Master Beef Producer (MBP) program on the technical efficiency (TE) of Tennessee beef production was estimated using county-level data in 2007, 2012, and 2017. A two-stage, double bootstrap method was used to measure TE by county and year, and identify any statistical relationship between MBP and TE. TE of beef production changed statewide during this time period. We found a positive relationship in MBP participation and county-level TE of beef production. Results are helpful in targeting locations for future education and provide evidence on the effectiveness of MBP.
Ebert, Kerri; Hoch, Braden; Taylor, Hannah; Schwab, Benjamin
Over the last five years, industrial hemp began to re-enter mainstream agriculture through the 2014 Farm Bill pilot program legalizing the study of growth, cultivation, and marketing of industrial hemp by state departments of agriculture and higher education institutions for research purposes. The 2018 Farm Bill expanded opportunities for industrial hemp production beyond research creating a national commercial industrial hemp production program that allows states, Indian Tribes, and Territories to submit plans for regulating and monitoring their own industrial hemp production programs. This paper looks at Kansas’ experience during its first growing season under the pilot research program.
Tejeda, Hernan A.; Chahine, Mireille; Du, Xiaoxue; Lu, Liang; Westerhold, Ashlee
Adoption of Automated Milking Systems (AMS) by U.S. dairies began in the year 2000, and main regions presently making use of AMS are located in the upper Midwest and Northeast. Idaho ranks among the top three U.S. milk-producing states; however, the number of dairies having adopted AMS is quite low at approximately 10% of all farms. A survey of Idaho dairy farms was conducted to determine their level of responsiveness to AMS technology, and which characteristics may influence or have influenced (in case of having adopted) the adoption process. Survey results focused on non-adopters and served to estimate a Probit model. Summary results showed that a main concern for adopting AMS was the high investment costs involved, and that smaller sized producers indicated higher interest in possible adoption. Estimated model results considering age, education, herd size, type of parlor (parallel, herringbone, rotary, other) and type of farm (free stall, open lot, bedded pack, other), etc. found that dairies having a free stall had significant positive interest in adoption versus dairies with open lots, possibly responding to being easier to install AMS boxes in dairies with free stall. Additional findings are presented. Given the increasing difficulties with supply of labor at dairy farms in Idaho and across the U.S. and the changing lifestyle of dairy producers, it is anticipated that a continuous transition into AMS adoption occurs spearheaded by smaller dairies and more educated, younger farmers.
Ostrom, Marcia; Goldberger, Jessica R.; Smith, Katherine Selting
The number of farmers markets in the United States has increased dramatically in recent decades. A visible exemplar of efforts to capture more value for farmers and communities by relinking food production and consumption, farmers markets offer a window into the values and dynamics of alternative food movements. Research in Washington State found that half of farmer participants, 73% of market managers, and over 70% of shoppers are women. While a highly gendered division of labor is typical of mainstream agri-food systems, few scholars have critically examined these aspects of alternative food chains. We conclude that understanding farmers markets as intersecting, gendered spaces is critical to analyzing their potential contributions to food systems change and enhancing women’s lives and livelihoods.
Smith, Katherine; Ostrom, Marcia
Farm incubator programs have been presented as a solution to reduce barriers to entry for beginning farmers. While various forms of the farm incubator model have been documented in the literature, the significance of community capital building in the development of viable beginning farm businesses through farm incubator programs has not been investigated. Our participatory research with the bilingual, organic Viva Farms Incubator partnership in Western Washington shows how a farm incubator program can facilitate access for beginning and socially disadvantaged farmers of different races and cultures to access financial capital and markets through the development of social capital. In this case, cross-cultural capacity building appears to be both an end result and a necessary condition to connect diverse, new-entry farmers with education, farming infrastructure, and markets.
Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth; Espinoza, Maria L. Ramos; Yang, Michael; Engelskirchen, Gwenael; Feenstra, Gail
Moringa is an emerging crop for California with an upward market trend due to its high nutritional value. It is grown on a small scale by Southeast Asian farmers in California’s San Joaquin Valley. While current sales have been entirely of fresh moringa, dried moringa products could provide additional income as well as the capacity for off-season sales of stored products. To expand economic opportunities for these farms, we researched best practices for creating value-added, dried moringa products for local, direct markets and wholesale markets. We also interviewed potential buyers to determine what marketing opportunities exist for both fresh and dried moringa in California. Our results indicate that dried moringa products can reach niche markets for local products in California if regulatory and certification requirements are addressed. Initially, our focus was working with individual farmers to expand fresh and processed moringa sales. However, aggregators or food businesses may be better suited to purchase fresh moringa from small-scale farms and complete the necessary certifications for processing it, especially if a locally sourced product could provide higher prices.
DePhelps, Colette; Peterson, Steven
During the summer of 2018, a team of community members, led by University of Idaho Extension, performed a Rapid Market Assessment (RMA) of the Moscow Farmers Market, located in Moscow, Idaho. The RMA data was used by University of Idaho faculty to conduct an economic assessment of the Moscow Farmers Market using IMPact Analysis for PLANing (IMPLAN). The purpose of the study was to understand the economic footprint of the market, including estimating the market’s economic contribution to the City of Moscow’s investment in market operations and management and the economic contributions to the local economy in Latah County, Idaho. It is clear from this analysis that the Moscow Farmers Market is a significant asset to the City of Moscow and has significant positive direct and indirect contributions to the local economy. With the rise of COVID-19, it is important that the success of the Moscow Farmers Market be monitored, and that support be provided to market vendors and downtown shops to ensure their rebound post-pandemic.
Macon, Dan; Ingram, Roger; Fake, Cindy
Economic viability is challenging for most small-scale agricultural producers, perhaps especially in the Sierra Nevada Foothills. Profitability, a key determination of long-term sustainability, is particularly difficult to achieve. Since 2008, we have been conducting a combination of structured business planning educational programs while supporting the creation of producer-to-producer networks to support further inquiry into production and business management topics, provide feedback on key decisions, and bring about accountability. Past participant surveys have demonstrated that these programs improve the likelihood of profitability compared with nonparticipant producers. We specifically describe two case studies, the Foothill Grazing Geeks and the Mandarin Growers Collaborative.
Mendoza, Carmen T.; Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth M.
Southeast Asian farmers in Fresno County are a socially disadvantaged group, which grows more than 14,000 tons of specialty crops per year. They typically sell produce at farm stands, Asian grocery stores and farmers markets throughout California. While previously they were unable to participate in farm-to-school programs in local school districts, technical assistance from a non-profit and a university extension program succeeded in a pilot program for institutional procurement at the Fresno Unified School District. Three farmers became vendors after barriers were addressed. We highlight the process and the outcomes of collaboration and advocacy.
Hill, Rebecca; Mooney, Daniel; Thilmany, Dawn
Establishing state hemp programs in the U.S. West creates an increased need for economic professionals to understand key supply chain issues for this new alternative crop. The Colorado Hemp Advancement Management Plan (CHAMP) is a comprehensive blueprint for the state’s fledgling hemp industry. Making the plan entailed an examination of the complete supply chain, with input gathered from over 150 stakeholders organized into 8 thematic supply chain groups. This article reflects on the CHAMP initiative by describing the state’s hemp sector and summarizing key issues related to research and development, cultivation, testing, processing, transportation, manufacturing, and banking and insurance segments of the supply chain. These issues will likely pertain to other western hemp programs beyond Colorado as they also make headway into this sector.
Nadreau, Timothy P.; Fortenbery, T. Randall
The Odessa Sub-area lies in the second, and uncompleted, region of Washington’s Columbia Basin Water Project. Water used for irrigation in the region is currently pumped from as deep as 700 feet, and water access is steadily declining. We measure the economic losses to the potato producing region that would result from further reducing access to water for crop irrigation in the Columbia Basin. Estimated costs are adjusted for the gains in wheat production that would result as affected growers transition their land into the next best non-irrigated crop alternative in the region. Then, we move beyond the standard contribution analysis by looking not only at the net losses in production, but potential forward linked losses from potato processing plant closures.
Shartaj, Mostafa; Suter, Jordan F.
Outdoor recreation demand has increased substantially in the Western United States in the last decade. We demonstrate how National Forest campground utilization varies in response to changes in population, per capita income, and unemployment in counties local to that campground. Our findings suggest that a 1 percent increase in per capita income reduces utilization by 0.08 to 0.09 percentage points. Moreover, an increase of 1 percentage point in the unemployment rate increases utilization by 0.3 to 0.6 percentage points. Overall, the results suggest that campground utilization is higher in areas that have seen declines in macroeconomic conditions.
Parker-Sedillo, Lenora; Robinson, Chadelle; Lillywhite, Jay
New Mexico stakeholders expressed interest in a state meat inspection program. Stakeholders recognize that a state inspection program could provide access to local markets for livestock, increase locally produced meat, provide economic development opportunities, and alleviate supply chain concerns. A study at New Mexico State University explored the potential costs of implementing a state meat inspection program. This article summarizes interviews of 22 state officials operating meat inspection programs and 25 existing meat processors in New Mexico about interest to participate. Researchers estimated the state program would have an annual cost of $1.1 million with additional costs expected as the program develops and grows.
Hayes, Taylor E.; Robinson, Chadelle; Acharya, Ram; Flores, Nancy; Yao, Shengrui
Agricultural producers diversify their operations to reduce vulnerabilities to market and weather fluctuations. Agriculture producers in New Mexico often search for profitable, water efficient alternative crops and have shown interest in jujube fruit. A sensory evaluation determined consumer preferences of dried jujube based solely on the shape of the sample. An ordered probit regression model analyzed the data to determine the willingness to purchase. The analysis showed more than half of the participants were overall likely to purchase and had a clear preference for the circular shaped sample jujube fruit. This evidence supports jujube as a successful alternative crop.
Hagerman, Amy D.; Marshall, Tori
Animal disease preparedness involves an array of activities to enhance the ability to prevent or mitigate the effects of high consequence diseases. Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza and virulent Newcastle disease in the last decade tested animal disease preparedness investments in the West and highlighted areas where planning and research are still needed. This paper reflects on those eradication efforts and lessons learned from 2009-2019, as well as future challenges and opportunities pertaining to animal health in Western states, specifically resource limitations, public perceptions, and business continuity plans.
Ribera, Luis A.; Paggi, Mechel
Park, John L.; Friend, Diane; McKee, Greg; Manley, Matthew T.
The training of a board of directors for a cooperative business often focuses on the fiduciary duties and skills needed by the cooperative. However, this focus fails to recognize that high performing boards, which are comprised of individuals dedicated to self-improvement, strengthen the cooperative structure. This article presents a framework for cooperative governance, which is characterized by three levels: self, board, and cooperative. The authors suggest a more robust and holistic approach to director training.
Kenkel, Phil; McKee, Greg; Boland, Mike; Jacobs, Keri
The formation of livestock marketing cooperatives occurred in response to market failures. This article features the benefits these cooperatives have generated in their recent operations. Pork, beef, and lamb cooperatives are described. Open and closed membership cooperatives are considered. The structure and services of livestock marketing cooperatives demonstrate the flexibility of cooperatives as a mechanism to respond to changes in the livestock market, including food safety and trade concerns.